CIPA Assay Usage In Studies

The CIPA assay is the standard of all medical equipment used in testing for the clinical use of canine cardiovascular and orthopedic systems. This is the standardized form of testing performed on dogs to detect contractility deformity of skeletal systems. Contractility refers to the ability of the skeletal system to rotate and stretch in response to external load. In the case of canine cardiovascular and orthopedic systems, the response of these skeletal components to mechanical stress can provide valuable information about cardiac function and disease. In addition, CIPA testing provides valuable information about organ function and the effect of disease on the nervous system.

Types Of Tests Used

There are three major categories of test animals used in CIPA assays: humans, dogs, and rats. Human and dog patients who undergo CIPA assay testing typically have at least one type of disease affecting at least one of their heart muscle groups. Rats are usually used for this purpose because they are capable of undergoing repeated blood sampling cycles to obtain data for multiple groups of muscle fibers. One or more of the groups must demonstrate contractility changes that are predictive of at least a mild decrease in heart muscle function.

CIPA has enabled researchers to test the effects of various drugs on cardiac ion channels. Ion channel inhibitors (IAs) inhibit the activity of ion channels in cellular processes. Drugs like doxycycline, quercetin, glycine, and caffeine can be tested on ion channels in CIPA assays; however, other drugs, including amitriptyline, do not normally show changes in ion channel function when tested on these types of cells. Other types of drugs may affect ion channels in research animals in ways that are not described in the scientific literature.

Types Of Cipa Assay

There are four different types of CIPA ion channel assays. The first is an alkaline probe which uses sodium (Na+), bromide, and chlorine (Br-) chemicals to introduce and observe changes in the channel’s activity. The second is an acid probe using acetic acid (A+, HCl) and magnesium (Mg+), which again use bromide and Na+ to introduce and observe changes in the channel’s activity. The third is a water-soluble protein/DNA hybrid probe using DNA templates supplied by human cells. The last is a DNA microarray, which simultaneously tests two sets of DNA sequences.

The action potential of CIPA is measured in terms of the percentage of change in irreversible electrophysodynamic patterns (EMPs) from one control cell to another. The test was originally developed for the testing of novel drugs on human stem cells for use in research and drug development. The assay is currently being evaluated as a new and improved approach to identifying and monitor novel drug actions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoantibody related diseases. Other diseases in which CIPA is being evaluated are Alzheimer’s disease, Lupus erythematosus, Crohn’s disease, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, ticks and fleas, and ticks and lice.

Electrical Activity Monitoring

For clinical purposes, the CIPA assay allows for the monitoring of the electrical activity of individual cells, which can be compared with those of healthy controls. Because this method is based on in vitro proarrhythmia, it is considered safer than ionomycin based assays and therefore has been approved for use in clinical trials. This technology is still at an early stage of development and commercialization. However, patients with arrhythmias and other diseases in which electrical activity can provide vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rhythm may benefit from the use of CIPA.